Saturday, March 14, 2020
Assistive Medical Devices Essays Assistive Medical Devices Paper Assistive Medical Devices Paper Essay Topic: Medical Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The development and evolution of technology since the 20th century has paved the way for the creation of new alternatives that continuous to help man in its endeavor towards easing the difficulties of life. It has enabled many to go over hurdles and boundaries. It created better opportunities for man to seek out new ways to innovate and prove the road for betterment. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This technology has also spread in the creation of assistive devices for the disabled. It opened up new ways wherein it can go over manÃ¢â¬â¢s limitations and function as a normal human being. Now, these individuals too can dream and achieve goals without thinking their respective restrictions. In the end, these devices have been supplemental in the creation of better ways to appreciate life and seek out numerous possibilities. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One example of this assistive device involves the creation and design of Dr. Maysam Ghovanloo who is an assistant professor at NC State. With his expertise in both engineering and computer science, he looks into creating the Ã¢â¬ËTongue Drive SystemÃ¢â¬â¢ (The All Need, 2006). In this machine, he tries to help the people who had suffered from different severe disabilities. These include spinal cord ailments and degenerative diseases. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Looking at the machine, it is composed of microchip sensors that try to monitor movement within a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mouth and the vibrations that it may emit. Ã¢â¬Å"The basic device consists of three components: a tiny permanent magnet the size of a rice grain, which is coated with gold or platinum and can be attached to the tongue by means of piercing or implantationÃ¢â¬ (The All Need, 2006, p.1). After this procedure, it tries to gather responses from the brain and is receptive towards severe damages. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another component of this apparatus involves a control unit. It is in here that the records of the brain activity of a person is recorded and stored. Looking at its components, it is Ã¢â¬Å"comprised of sensor interface circuitry, wireless transmitter, and a pair of watch batteries Ã¢â¬â is contained in a coin-sized, custom designed sealed package that rests inside the mouth in the area under the tongueÃ¢â¬ (The All Need, 2006, p.1). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Prior to its creation, there were different models available to determine and understand the intentions and thoughts of an individual with severe disabilities. Most of the time, it looks into the attachment of a device towards a body part then simulated to an equipment to actively calculate a response. Examples of these include the sip-and-puff devices which are considered to be designed under a switch-based approach. However, these have proven to be disadvantageous at the long run because it lacks appeal to the public and the limited capabilities it can offer (The All Need, 2006, p.1). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another apparatus that is also existent prior to this device is the one that uses webcam that tries to Ã¢â¬Å"scan face or eye movements and require user to sit in front of the monitorÃ¢â¬ (The All Need, 2006, p.1). Again, this device is difficult to achieve because of the degenerative state of an individual and the obstacle of getting the accurate reading out of the process. At the same time, this is unappealing because it is not user-friendly in nature and requires a professional to make the necessary readings and findings. Seeing this, it is more expensive to pursue this process than the switch-based approach. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Dr. Ghovanloo mentions that this gadget is supplemental for these individuals because it can generate reactions without really tapping into the damaged area such as the spinal cord. It is said that this device operates and taps into the hypglossal nerve which is connected to the brain; a part that can be seen in the manÃ¢â¬â¢s tongue (The All Need, 2006). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Though there are physical limitations in this equipment such as it does not operate on a switch based or sip-and-puff device, the Tongue Drive System has components that are appealing even to the disabled person. Its strength lies in the way it is designed; simple yet effective in nature. Ã¢â¬Å"This gadget Ã¢â¬Å"provides maximum capabilities with no invasive procedures and no externally obvious wiring or visually unappealing componentsÃ¢â¬ (The All Need, 2006). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Also another important advantage of this device is it is inexpensive and not difficult to operate. Not like the new models wherein they try to put in electrodes in the brain to decipher intentions and thoughts, the Tongue Drive system does not use invasive brain surgery and expensive materials for it to work and monitor an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s activities (The All Need, 2006). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One way that this device is innovative compared to its predecessors is the way it communicates with other systems. Ã¢â¬Å"The Tongue Drive System uses a wireless transmission to communicate with a basic PDA or nearby technology using Bluetooth or Wi-Fi technologyÃ¢â¬ (The All Need, 2006, p.1). Ã Moreover, software has been written to actively make this device responsive to the apparatus and its receiver. It tries to Ã¢â¬Å"decode signals from the mouth sensors, translate them to user commands, and then communicate the commands to a specified device such as a computer, powered wheelchair, telephone or televisionÃ¢â¬ (The All Need, 2006, p.1). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Dr. Ghovanloo explains this process between the tongue and his device to be like a peripheral device in a computer wherein the user can point out specific up to complex instructions which would then be interpreted into several actions (The All Need, 2006). The good thing about this device is it also collaborates with previous innovations such as switch based and then enables the person to have control over a connected machine such as a wheelchair. Also, it provides a continuous motion compared to its predecessors as it processes data and information at a faster rate. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the end, Dr. Ghovanloo and his collaboration with other scientists have paved the way for the creation of better devices that will support the needs of patients with degenerative diseases and ailments. By taking into consideration the needs of patients particularly in WakeMed Rehab, he and his team can find better ways that can increase possibilities for these people to live normal lives (The All Need, 2006). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã To conclude, assistive devices are inventions that have been supplemental for people with disabilities in making them cope with the challenges of society and life. It gave them the hope and inspiration that despite their current state, possibilities are still available for them. It gave them the motivation that by making these things work for them, they can interact and live like normal human beings. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã At the same time, innovators and researchers also share a unique responsibility in fostering and catering towards improvement. By dwelling into what matters most for these people, they can come up and design new possibilities that will bridge further the gap that exists between normal and disabled people. Reference The All Need (2006) Tongue Drive System Revolutionizes Assistive Device for the Disabled. Retrieved January 9, 2009 from, theallineed.com/engineering/06082931.htm
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Assault, Battery, and Crimes against Persons - Assignment Example This means that there are different degrees of battery depending on the seriousness of the harm inflicted. Assault is not considered anything beyond threats without any physical harm. However, the reason why most of the jurisdictions consider both crimes together is because when one commits battery, they first have the intention of causing harm followed by threats and then they the physical harm is caused. While assault is executed verbally, battery goes beyond to involve both verbal and physical harm (FindLaw, 2014). To draw a clear distinction between battery and assault an example is ideal. An example of an assault is seen when an individual intimidates another and threatens to kill them. However, the person threatening the other does not inflict any physical harm to them. On the other hand, the case of (A) can be regarded as battery where the attacker inflicts harm to (A) by dragging him and ripping off her clothes. The action taken by (A) cannot be considered as assault neither battery since he was on self-defense when he hit the attacker with a rock and ran away. The attacker should be punished for having committed both battery and assault to (A). This is because he had the intention to harm and went ahead to engage in a physical act that was geared towards causing fear and bodily harm to (A). The actions of (A) cannot be regarded as either assault or battery because they were attacked and reacted to the actions of the attacker by using a self-defensive mechanism. The assault and consequent battery against (A) could be narrowed down to consensual touching if the attacker did not inflict any form of harm or create any fear of harm to (A). This is based on the view that the attacker did not have any evil motive of inflicting injury to (A), neither did they attempt to harm them verbally. In consensual touching, the victim (A), should be willing to talk to the attacker without being forced to do
Monday, February 10, 2020
Children of Older Men at Greater Risk of Mental Illness - Article Example According to research studies, children with older fathers are at risk for a number of psychiatric conditions. These include autistic disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as bipolar disorder. Children suffering from such conditions also report to struggle at their schools, have poor learning abilities and impaired cognitive development. Scientists suggest that the increased risk can be explained by the increased number of genetic mutations that build up in the sperms as the men get older. Children of older fathers also had increased risk of having suicidal behavior and drug abuse. These findings were published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry. However, the studies are restricted to comparisons between the siblings and it is difficult to separate the overlapping dimensions of paternal age, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s age and the order of birth. In many countries, the age of first-time fathers is increasing which is an alarming sign keeping view the current res earchers. The average of men who are first-time fathers in England is 30.8 to 32.6 years which clearly increases the risk of educational, psychiatric and behavioral problems in the children. The article brings to attention a significant aspect of biological science associated with reproduction and conceiving. Being aware of the medical problems our children are at risk is an important aspect for the parents as they are constantly worried about the well-being of their children. The association of increasing age of fathers and the increased risk of psychiatric conditions and behavioral disturbances in children is a resourceful research.Ã
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Assess the view that factors and processes within the school Essay Many sociologists argue that Ã¢â¬Å"factors and processes within school are the main cause of differenceÃ¢â¬ These factors include gender, class and ethnicity. All of these things can lead to certain stereotypes and labels being forced upon pupils. The idea that Teachers have certain expectations of different social and ethnic groups means that self-fulfilling prophecy can lead to pupils living out positive and negative labels. The role of gender in educational achievement is that in past times it has been that boys have achieved less than girls in school, this could be that boys have a history of Ã¢â¬ËladdishÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour and have had a negative attitude to learning. This had also led to teachers expectations of Ã¢â¬ËladsÃ¢â¬â¢ to be low which has caused negative stereotypes and labels. All of these things have in turn caused many anti-school subcultures. Jackson did a study about how this Ã¢â¬ËladdishÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour is now being seen in some girls which could in fact mean that it is not only boys that have these negative labels but also girls. Another factor that may influence the achievement of girls is that girls now have a lot of higher role models and more opportunities in the future; this can lead to them working harder because they can see themselves being successful in the future. Another In-school factor would be ethnicity, different ethnic groups achieve better than others in education, for example the highest achieving ethnic group is British Chinese and the lowest would be black African Caribbean boys. The reasons for these differences in achievement could be linked to family morals and attitudes to school. Teachers also have expectations of different ethnic groups which again, like gender can lead to positive and negative labels and stereotypes. The curriculum in schools could also lead to this due to it being ethnocentric. Differences in class an play a crucial role in the achievement between different classes, for example working class children do not have as much cultural capital as middle class children and this can play a vital part in how they achieve at school, due to teachers expectations of how they behave and achieve. The idea of the hidden curriculum means that schools are preparing students for middle class jobs with middle class ideas. Also the idea that middle class teachers get on better with idle class students also reinforces the idea of teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations which can lead to self-fulfilling prophecy and students either over or under achieving. One more in-school factor would be pupil subcultures and how streaming and setting can lead to both anti and pro school subcultures, This again links to the idea of self-fulfilling prophecy and that students may either reject their labels or follow them. The organisation of the school can also be closely linked to class and how students may be put into lower streams or sets due to their social background and how teachers perceive them. Home backgrounds of students also contribute to a large part of their achievement. The differences in class can lead to many home disadvantages such as material deprivation which means that students do not have enough money for resources such as private tutors, laptops, trips or uniforms; this will give them a disadvantage compared to middle class students. Working class students may also have other responsibilities to attend to such as looking after siblings or even disabled parents; this means that they do not have as much time to spend on studying. ParentÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes towards school and education can also prove to be an impact, if a parent has a negative attitude to school and learning then the child will not have as much pressure or ambition to do as well. This idea of parent expectations links closely with ethnicity and how different ethnic groups view educarion. In conclusion there are many in school processes that can influence the achievement of children such as gender and how girls and boys are perceived and what teachers expect of them. Another would be Class and how working and middle class students achieve differently due to aspects of school life like the hidden curriculum. Also ethnicity and the expectations and ideas about certain groups like the British Chinese. There are also a lot of out of school factors such as home background, material deprivation and parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations. Overall I believe that the both in school factors and out of school factors contribute to the differences in educational achievement of different social groups.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
SURVIVAL OF THE MARINE CORPS The Marine Corps historical characteristics after the Civil War could be based in part on survivability and the need for the Marine Corps to prove its worth to the United States as a Military Force. The Marine Corps part in the Civil War had been small and not altogether impressive. Both the Army and the Navy did not regard the Marine Corps as useful. This paper will in effect touch on the Marine Corps history from after the Civil War to World War I. It will then converge on a discussion with regards to the fight against the disestablishment of the Marine Corps. (Simmons/Moskin 1998) The Marine Corps found its mission in the amphibious landings of several countries Ã¢â¬Å"to protect American lives and property". Some of these countries included China, Formosa, Japan, Korea, Samoa, Hawaii, Panama, Nicaragua, Uruguay, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Haiti, and Egypt. The United States, having conquered much of North America, was expanding overseas. Marines made small-scale landings in response to real or perceived affronts to U.S. diplomatic or economic interests. (Simmons/Moskin 1998) In 1883 the motto of the Marine Corps, "Semper Fidelis" (Ã¢â¬Å"always faithfulÃ¢â¬ ), was adopted as the official motto of the Marine Corps. Since 1812 the motto, although unofficial, had been "Fortitudine" ("with courage"). The Marine Corps adopted this motto in part because of the fact that there has never been a mutiny, or even the thought of one, among U.S. Marines. (Website For Young Marines, Online) When America became involved in the Ã¢â¬Å"splendid little warÃ¢â¬ against Spain when they landed in Cuba. The Marine Corps involvement was again modest with their major feat being the taking of a coaling station for the Navy. (Simmons/Moskin 1998) The day after the war with Spain ended, August 12, American troops began the occupation of Manila. Two battalions of Marines were involved in the attacking the fortified town of Novaleta. After a third battalion arrived in December the pacification of the Philippines continued. (Simmons/Moskin 1998) The Marine Corps continued to justify its means through World War I. The Marine Corps was involved in the Boxer Rebellion in China, Columbia, Cuba, Nicaragua and once again in the Philippines. Although most were minor scuffles, Marines were about to make their first significant mark in World Wa... ...me. (Warfighting Planning Course Online) It seems from the end of the Civil War to the beginning of the Korean War, there were always certain affiliations that did not see a need for a Marine Corps. In theory this would be correct as even today you can make that argument. Aviation we have the Air Force, for Naval Power we have the Navy and for ground assaults we have the Army. Being a Marine myself I am a bit sensitive on the subject. Although I think there are a multitude of reasons I believe there will always be a Marine Corps, but only one reason makes all the others seem mute. There will always be a Marine Corps because the American People want a Marine Corps. BIBLIOGRAPHY Millett, Allan R., Semper Fidelis: A History of the United States Marine Corps (New York: The Free Press, 1991). Simmons, Edwin Howard, ed. and Moskin, J. Robert, ed. The Marines: The Marine Heritage Foundation, Levin Associates, 1998. Sturkey, Marion F., Warrior Culture. Heritage Press International, 2nd Ed., 2003. email@example.com, RE:Macauthor, Online. Warfighting Planning Course: USMC in National Military Strategy Website for Young Marines: Common Sayings and Quotations, Chadduck Enterprises. 1999
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the United States, and doing it in public is even worse because smokers not only harm themselves, but also those around them. I remember how my great uncle would always smoke in his house regardless of his surroundings. When his daughter visited him for a vacation, she brought her three year old daughter with her. The baby was healthy before coming to her grandpa's house, but in less than two weeks, she had developed ear infections and started to cough. When they went to the doctors' office to find out how she had gotten it, the doctor linked it back to the second hand smoke that she was breathing in. When my great uncle found out about it, he finally started to care about where he was smoking and who he was with, and decided that he would smoke in a secluded place where no one but him may be affected. Like my great uncle in the past, many smokers think they could do whatever they want because it is their body, but to me, their right ends where my health begins. I believe that smoking in public places should be banned at a federal level because even the smallest wisp of smoke can do a lot of damage to the people around them and the environment. Smoking has been proven to have many deadly effects on humans and the environment that it would make sense to ban people doing it in public. Cigarettes negatively affect the environment in many ways that not many people seem to realize. According to a study by Tree Hugger Ã¢â¬Å"more than 4. 5 trillion non-biodegradable filter-tipped cigarettes are thrown away annually somewhere in the worldÃ¢â¬ (McLaren). Most cigarette butts are not thrown away properly because many can be easily found on the streets and even near bodies of water. Ã¢â¬Å"It takes about 18 months to 10 years for cigarette butts to decomposeÃ¢â¬ (McLaren). It would make it easier for trash to keep on piling up, making the world a dirtier place. Not only does the trash make the environment look unattractive but it also affects animals. When a cigarette butt is thrown near a water source, it may contaminate an aquatic ecosystem. According to Tree Hugger, cigarette butts have been found inside the stomachs of birds and fishes (McLaren). It is horrible to know that some of the fishes that we have eaten may have been contaminated by cigarette butts. Though many smokers already know of the health risks that come with smoking cigarettes, but what most of them do not, is how secondhand smoking can affect other people. Ã¢â¬Å"Breathing in low doses of secondhand smoke can increase a personÃ¢â¬â¢s risk of heart attackÃ¢â¬ according to a study by Dr. Meyers, a professor of Cardiology and Preventive Medicine at University of Kansas (Sciencedaily. com). Smokers should not risk non-smokers for something that they do. In continuation of Dr. MeyersÃ¢â¬â¢ study is that, Ã¢â¬Å"secondhand smoking increases the likelihood of a heart attack by making the blood Ã¢â¬Å"stickyÃ¢â¬ , making it more prone to clotting, and reducing the amount of good cholesterol in the bodyÃ¢â¬ (Sciencedaily. com). Non-smokers should no t be worrying about paying more medical bills, especially in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economic situation. Many businesses provide health insurance to their employees. According to a statistical data collected by Live Strong, employers spend an extra $49 million in medical costs for employees who are exposed to secondhand smoking in their jobs (Nelson). Employers would be able to hire more people with the money that is being used to pay for medical bills that could be prevented. Smoking banned in public places may lead to less pollution, non-smokers not getting harmed, and employers saving money from unneeded medical bills that could be used to hire more employees. Whenever I ask a smoker why they smoke, many respond in something like, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s my own body; I can do whatever I want with it. Ã¢â¬ According to a report by Dr. Stillman, co-director of the Institute for Global Tobacco Control at Johns Hopkins University, says, Ã¢â¬Å"Inhaling the complex mixture of compounds in tobacco smoke can cause cancer, cardiovascular disease and lung diseaseÃ¢â¬ (Shrieves). Though it is their own body, we all share the same air, and the smoke that cigarettes produce is contaminating our air, which may also harm a other people. Most people think that smoking and bars go together like two peas in a pod, and many think that by banning smoking in public places will lead to a decrease of revenue in some businesses. According to a report collected by the CDC, Ã¢â¬Å"a smoke-free indoor air ordinance that was passed in El Paso, Texas, proved that there were no statistically significant changes in restaurant and bar revenues after the smoking ban took effectÃ¢â¬ (CDC. gov). It is more beneficial to people to ban smoking seeing as there is no change in revenues and it would not affect the economy. Ban of smoking in public places in a federal level is much more favorable to non-smokers and makes no significant changes in revenues in businesses. Smoking in public should be banned at a federal level without question. Smoking negatively affects people, the environment and businesses. There are no logical reasons to allow smoking in public places and doing so does not benefit anyone but cigarette makers. Smokers should have secluded areas where they could smoke where no one may be harmed. The government should provide trash cans in these areas so smokers would not just throw their cigarette butts on the floor. Anyone caught smoking in public places and littering their cigarettes should be fined. Smoking endangers people who chose not to engage in the same reckless behavior, like my baby cousin who had gotten so sick because of my great uncleÃ¢â¬â¢s smoking. It also dirties our environment and harms other animals that are in search of food. Businesses who provide health insurance to their workers affected by second hand smoking are wasting money that could be used to hire more employees. Banning smoking in public may lead to a better way of life and a healthier place to live.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Berkoff v Burchill - Lawsuit against Journalist for Insulting Famous Director Free Essay Example, 1500 words
The appellants of the case Berkoff v Burchill relied on the arguments that the definition of tort of defamation is hinge on the idea that injury was caused to the reputation of the appellee. The fact that a statement may injure feelings or cause annoyance is irrelevant to the question whether it is defamatory and must, therefore, be considered as immaterial to the case. The counsel for the defendants relied on the words of Lord Atkins in the case of Sim v. Stretch  2 All ER 1237 at 1242 where it was stated that even though, as a matter of duty to safeguard liberty, the juries have the freedom to award damages for injury to reputation, such duty is undermined when exhibitions of bad manners or discourtesy are placed on the same level as attacks on character, and are treated as actionable wrongs. The counsel for the appellants illustrated that an allegation that a person is suffering from certain types of diseases can be considered as defamatory because this could cause some aversive reactions from people around him. However, he argued that a distinction must be made between the statements that somebody is physically unwholesome and an allegation that the person is physically aesthetically unpleasing. The counsel for the appellant argued that the shunned or avoided test couldn t be applied without qualification. We will write a custom essay sample on Berkoff v Burchill - Lawsuit against Journalist for Insulting Famous Director or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page